Scheduled Waste Management

Scheduled Waste Management

Pentas Flora’s proactive team of certified environmental professionals in Scheduled Waste Management continuously conduct audit and provide solutions to clients on the following categories:

  • Identification and classification of unknown wastes
  • Consultation & solution conceptualization to establish the waste specification and how to further deal with it.
  • Pentas Flora’s qualified chemist will identify unknown chemical items and arrange representative waste transporter for treatment and recovery when its necessary.
  • Discerning the total waste pathway from point of generation to consolidation, transportation, recovery, treatment and final disposal.
  • Our extensive experience in the waste management and environment industry enables us to provide expertise in all facets of waste management process.

Definition of Waste

Any discarded solid, liquid or contained gas or material that we can no longer use (unwanted material).


Definition of Scheduled Waste

Any matter prescribed to be scheduled waste or any matter whether in a solid, semi-solid or liquid form, or in the form of a gas or vapor that we can no longer used, which emitted, discharged or deposited in the environment in such volume, composition or manner as to cause pollution.

In Malaysia, therefore, a material only become waste at the point at which it is emitted, discharged or deposited and then only if it causes pollution. It could thus be waste or may not be waste if it is managed in a manner so as to cause no pollution.

A waste is classified as hazardous based on its four characteristic. A waste is considered hazardous if it has one or more of the following characteristic:

  • If the waste is a liquid and has flash point less than 60°C (140°F) as determined by Pensky-Martens closed cup tester or a setaflash closed cup tester.
  • If the waste is not a liquid but is capable under standard temperature and pressure, of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemicals changes and when ignited, burns so vigorously persistently that it creates hazard.
  • It is intangible compressed gas, e.g.: LPG.
  • It is an oxidizer.
  • If the waste has an aqueous component and has a pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 11.5 as determined by an approved/calibrated pH meter or;
  • If the waste has liquid component and corrodes steel (SAE 1020) at a rate greater than 6.35 mm (0.250 inch) per year at test temperature of 55°C (130°F).
  • If the waste or its extract has any of the contaminants listed in the Table 1 and Table 2 of the guidelines for the application of special management of scheduled waste at the concentration equal to or greater than the respective values given in the table.
  • If the waste is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent changes without detonating.
  • If the waste reacts violently with water.
  • If the waste forms potentially explosive mixtures with water.
  • If the waste when mixed with water generates toxic gases, vapours or fumes to cause danger to human health or the environment.
  • Ability to spread disease or illnesses through bacteria, virus, fungus or other microorganism.


"Any waste failing within the categories of waste listed in the First Schedule"

List of waste types is divided in five parts:

  • Group 1 : SW1 – Scheduled wastes from metal and metal – bearing wastes.
  • Group 2 : SW2 – Scheduled wastes from the wastes containing principally inorganic constituents which may contain metals and inorganic materials.
  • Group 3 : SW3 – Scheduled wastes from wastes containing principally organic constituents which may contain metals and inorganic materials.
  • Group 4 : SW4 – Scheduled wastes from wastes which may contain either inorganic or organic constituents.
  • Group 5 : SW5 – Scheduled wastes from other wastes.

Treatment and Disposal of Scheduled Wastes

The main types of facilities

a) Recovery or Recycling Facilities

  • Solvent, oil, acids or metals

b) Treatment facilities

  • Physical, chemical, thermal or biological method

c) Land disposal facilities

  • Secure landfill

d) Fully Integrated Facility

  • Physical/chemical treatment, recovery, stabilization, incineration and land disposal (secure landfill)

Reuse: Use of a waste for the original or another purpose without pre-treatment or processing
Recycling: Reuse of a waste after some processing
Recovery: Extraction of useful material of energy which may use which may use be reused
Treatment: Processing to reduce the hazardous properties of a waste
Disposal: Final disposal of the waste by handling

Oil Recovery

Recovery Process Waste Types Recovered Oil

Oil Water Separation
• Gravity separation
• Coalescence separation
• Emulsion splitting
• Ultra filtration
• Air floatation

a) Mineral Oil
b) Oily water mixture / oil emulsion

Oil reused as fuel supplement

• Distillation
• Acid/clay

Waste oil after oil-water separation

Oil reused for general purposes


Local example:

  • Burning waste oil as fuel can lead to unacceptable emissions
  • Fuel blending may improve emissions
  • Cement kilns offer a good combustion environment
  • Waste oil may also be used as
    • Timber preservative
    • Low grade grease or lubricant


Solvent Recovery

Types of water solvent:

  • white spirit
  • methanol
  • iso-propyl alcohol (IPA)
  • acetone
  • methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)
  • dimethyl formamide (DMF)
  • trichlorethylene (TCE)
  • Others


Recovery Process Waste Types Recovered Solvents


Organic solvents

Oil Water Separation
• Alcohol solvent recovery in Flexographic Printing
• Thinner solvent recovery at Motor and panel Repair Workshop

Use in low grade paint

Paint solvents

Mainly white spirit



Metal Recovery

Recovery Process Waste Types Recovered Metals
Metal precipitation Electroplating wastes Cr, Cu, Al, Zn, Cd, Ni
Ion exchange Electroplating wastes Cr, Cu, Al, Zn, Cd
Electronic metal recovery Photo-finishing wastes Silver
Spent Catalyst Ni, Cr, Pt, Pd, Cu
Electronic wastes Precious metals
Re-melting Solder dross Solder



E-waste Recovery

  1. Collection
  2. Segregation
  3. Breaking
  4. Crushing
  5. Packing


  • Product is still scheduled waste
  • Exportation of product requires export permit from DoE (Basel Convention procedures)
  1. Collection
  2. Segregation
  3. Breaking
  4. Crushing
  5. Precious Metal Recovery (Electrolysis, smelting)


  • Product is not scheduled waste
  • Exportation of product does not require export permit



Smelting Technology

Key process

Cyanidation, amalgamation, acid leaching

Integrated smelter/refineries


Precious metals only

Base metals, precious metals & rare metals


Treatment Process

  • Physical and Chemical Treatment (PCT)
  • Solidification
  • Incineration
  • Wet air oxidation
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Land treatment

Scheduled Waste Minimisation

  • A requirement of regulation 6 of the Scheduled Waste Regulations
  • Not a simple technique
  • Each factory is different
  • More an attitude of mind
  • Commitment of management essential

Scheduled Waste Utilisation

  • Alternative to SWM in Malaysia apart from treatment, recovery and disposal at prescribed premises or on-site treatment
  • Under Special Management of SW, Regulation 7, of Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulation 2005
  • Application for Special Management must be in accordance with the stipulated guidelines
  • Processing fee RM300
  • DG of DOE may grant written approval either with or without conditions